Paper’s Abstracts


Regan Leonardus Kaswanto, Hadi Susilo Arifin, and Nobukazu Nakagoshi. 2012. Water Quality Index as a Simple Indicator for Sustainability Management of Rural Landscape in West Java, Indonesia. International Journal of Environmental Protection. Dec. 2012, Vol. 2 Iss. 12, PP. 17-27.

Water Quality Index as a Simple Indicator for Sustainability Management of Rural Landscape in West Java, Indonesia
ABSTRACT
Research on water quality in rural landscapes in four watersheds was conducted in the dry season period. Twenty four villages in the west part of Java Island, Indonesia, were selected as the study sites. Water samples from springs, ponds, paddy fields and rivers in each village were analyzed. The water quality index (WQI) results showed that the water samples were in “good” and “medium” level. This condition proofed that rural landscapes have the ability to absorb and clean the water pollution through the natural process. Further analysis shows the negative correlation between WQI and TIN (sum of NH4-N, NO3-N and NO2-N), which indicated the deterioration in water quality due to the addictive effect of inorganic nitrogen compounds. Furthermore, the negative correlation between WQI and dissolved oxygen (DO) indicates the water quality is still in low level which complies with the standard. In conclusion, as a useful method for water quality classification, the WQI is effectively applicable for the assessment of water quality in the rural landscapes. In addition, the results were easy to understand for the non-scientific public and decision-makers. The WQI is suitable for the water quality assessments for monitoring pollution control strategies, particularly in developing countries with limited budgets.
Keywords:agricultural land; rural landscapes; watershed management; water quality index; West Java watersheds

Full Paper (PDF, 3130KB)

Friday, August 05, 2011 at 09:00-11:00

Venue: Landscape Architecture Studio – Wing XIII, Level VI
Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB)

EVALUATION OF CARBON STOCK DYNAMIC AT PRIMARY PEAT FOREST AND BURNT PEAT FOREST

I Wayan Susi Dharmawan
Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Bogor, Indonesia; Center of Forest Nature and Conservation Research and Development, Bogor, Indonesia; Email: salifa03@yahoo.co.id

Supervisors:
PROF. DR. BAMBANG HERO SAHARDJO, PROF. DR. HADI SUSILO ARIFIN,
DR. SUPRIYANTO, and DR. CHAIRIL ANWAR SIREGAR

ABSTRACT

Peat forest vegetation has the potency of Carbon sequestration is about 200 tC/ha. Providing of Carbon sequestration and soil Carbon data is important in estimating to fill out the limitations of existing data, therefore, data variation in the peat swamp forest Carbon stocks can be reduced. For that reason, we need to do an inventory of forest Carbon stocks based on the characteristics of peat forest type. The research objectives are: a). to analyze the level of vegetation Carbon stocks in some age of burnt peat forest and primary peat forests, b). to analyze the level of soil organic Carbon, and c). to predict Carbon stocks recovery of vegetation at repeated burnt peat forest, burnt peat forest after 3 years and after 8 years using extrapolation calculations. The approach method would be used to establish the plot as much as four clusters in the repeated burnt peat forest, burnt peat forests after 3 years, burnt peat forest after 8 years and primary peat forest. Each cluster has 4 sub-plots, so totally there are 16 sub-plots. Some variables will be observed in each cluster, i.e. stand biomass (seedlings, saplings, poles and trees), necromass, litter, and shrubs. Destructive sampling method will be used to establish the allometric equations at each cluster location. In addition, it is also measured the Carbon reserves of peat soils and peat depth.

Agroforestry Landscape Characteristics of Karang Mumus River Basin, East Kalimantan 1)

Penny Pujowati 2) Hadi Susilo Arifin 3) Wahju Qamara Mugnisjah3)

1) Proceeding of Indonesia Network For Agroforestry Education (INAFE) Seminar in Mataram-Lombok, 27-29 January 2010
2) Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mulawarman (UNMUL)
3) faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB)

Abstract
East Kalimantan as the largest province in Indonesia has big problems, i.e. land degradation, floods, flora and fauna destruction, and contribution to change of global climate and global warming. 32,196.3 ha of Karang Mumus area is a river basin in East Kalimantan with high level of damage. At the present, there is 9,106 ha of marginal land inside of Karang Mumus watershed. The purpose of this research is to evaluate agroforestry landscape characteristic of Karang Mumus river basin. Based on spatial and temporal analysis with Landsat/satellite images by 1992 and 2007, the composition of settlement area was increased out from 1,277.1 ha became 1,926.9 ha. It was increased 649.8 ha (50.9%); the abandon land was increased out from 119.5 ha became 712.7 ha (495.5%); shrubs land was increased out from 25,297.4 ha became 25,762.1 ha (1.8%). On the contrary, cover type and land use form the wetland agriculture was decreased out from 1,034.8 ha became 807.8 ha (-21.9%); dry land agriculture was decreased out from 170.9 ha became 99.3 ha (-41.9%); and secondary forest was decreased out from 3,969.5 ha became 2,540.5 ha (-36.0%). Mostly of the lessen wetland of agriculture area, dry land agriculture, and secondary forest were caused by the occurrence of land use changing that they became settlements, shrubs land, and abandon land. Temporal analysis of Landsat image between 1992 and 2007 explained that land uses and cover types of settlement, abandon land, and shrubs lands were improved. Those changes have affected wetland agriculture, dry land agriculture, and secondary forest degradation.

Key words: agroforestry landscape, land use change, landsat image, landscape characteristic, river basin

REVITALISASI POTENSI LINGKUNGAN-EKONOMI-SOSIAL BUDAYA DALAM MEWUJUDKAN “SUSTAINABLE WATER FRONT CITY” DI KOTA CIREBON 1)

HADI SUSILO ARIFIN

1) Makalah untuk Prosiding Workshop dan Aksi Pembangunan Ekonomi Kota Cirebon Berwawasan Lingkungan, 1-2 Februari 2010
2) Guru Besar “Landscape Ecology and Environmental Management” di Bagian Manajemen Lanskap, Departemen Arsitektur Lanskap, Fakultas Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB)

ABSTRAK
Dalam era teknologi informasi yang menembus berbagai batas ruang dan waktu, seolah-olah kita dihadapkan pada permasalahan menghadapi persaingan yang bebas dan bersifat global. Menghadapi persaingan ini, siapa pun harus mengetahui dan bisa mengevaluasi dirinya sendiri, termasuk memahami dengan sadar akan segala kekurangan maupun kelebihannya. Hal ini merupakan modal besar bagi Kota Cirebon, jika kita bisa mengeliminir segala kekurangan yang ada dengan cara memberdayakan kembali (revitalization) apa yang kita miliki sebagai kelebihan Kota Cirebon yang tidak dimiliki kota-kota lainnya, atau paling tidak yang menjadi karakter Kota Cirebon yang sangat “distinct” dibandingkan dengan kota lain di sekitarnya baik dalam secara lokal, nasional, regional, atau bahkan international. Kata kunci “revitalisasi” digunakan dalam makalah ini, semata-mata ingin mengingatkan kita, Kota Cirebon bahwa telah memiliki semuanya, yaitu sumberdaya lingkungan (bio-fisik), ekonomi dan sosial budaya dengan karakter sebuah kota pantai, laju perekonomiannya pesat dan terbuka dengan daya aksesibilitas yang tinggi karena sebagai kota pelabuhan, dan memiliki sejarah yang panjang sebagai komunitas yang berkarakter. Terbukti masih bisa dilihat berbagai artefak serta pusat-pusat kesultanan seperti Kasepuhan, Kanoman, Kacerbonan, Kaprabonan dengan berbagai artefak kehidupan sosial dan budaya yang dimiliki oleh segenap masyarakat Kota Cirebon yang menyebabkan kita bangga telah dilahirkan sebagai “wong Cerbon”. Saya pribadi tidak pernah minder ketika sering mendengar komentar saat memperkenalkan diri sebagai orang Cirebon yang disebut “Jaware/Jawa saware, Sunda bukan, Jawa bukan”. Justru komentar tersebut adalah modal kita bahwa Cirebon memang beda. Ini bisa dibuktikan dengan keragaman jenis kesenian, budaya masyarakat, adat istiadat, logat bahasa, kuliner, arsitektur, hingga karakter lingkungan. Sebagai wong Cerbon, kita tidak akan kehabisan bahan untuk mempromosikan Cirebon mulai dari obyek wisata yang khas yaitu keraton-keraton yang ada,Gua Sunyaragi, Astana Gunung Jati; makanannya (empal gentong, nasi jamblang, nasi lengko, tahu gejrot, krupuk udang, sirup campolai hingga makanan seafood sampai terasi); keseniannya (topeng Cerbon, tarling, sintren, lais, dongbret dan lain sebagainya); batik Trusmi, arsitektur gapura Cerbon (candi bentar dari batu bata merah), mangga gedong. Dan masih banyak yang lainnya. Pertanyaannya, siapa yang berkewajiban mengusung dan mengawal segala potensi tersebut akan tetap berkelanjutan? Tidak hanya semata menanamkan kebanggaan pada diri kita dan generasi mendatang, tapi seharusnya memberdayakannya untuk keberlanjutan lingkungan, ekonomi dan sosial budaya kota Cirebon. Dengan karakteristik lingkungan yang ada, Cirebon sangat potensial untuk mengklaim sebagai kota , “water front city”. Untuk itu beberapa konsep serta kajian komparatif dengan kota lainnya yang lebih dulu berkembang, akan disampaikan pada makalah ini.

Kata Kunci: pembangunan berkelanjutan, kearifan lokal, kota muka air, nilai sosial budaya, revitalisasi

LESSON LEARNED REKLAMASI TAMBANG UNTUK (EKO)WISATA 1)

Hadi Susilo ARIFIN 2)

1) Workshop Pengelolaan Lingkungan Pertambangan – Kampus IPB Darmaga, 25 Februari 2010
Tema: Konsolidasi Peran IPB Dalam Pengelolaan Lingkungan Pertambangan

2) Kepala Bagian Manajemen Lanskap – Departemen Arsitektur Lanskap – Fakultas Pertanian – Institut Pertanian Bogor
Alamat Kontak: hsarifin@ipb.ac.id dan dedhsa@yahoo.com

ABSTRAK
Indonesia, merupakan salah satu Negara yang menghasilkan berbagai bahan tambang. Produksi tersebut juga menghasilkan bahan limbah, antar lain sludge yang mengandung berbagai jenis limbah berbahaya sepert: hydrocarbon, phenol, dan logam berat. Lahan bekas pertambangan menyisakan lubang-lubang besar yang menganga dan terbuka. Kondisi lanskap gundul yang sangat buruk dapat diperparah saat musim hujan yang dapat mengakibatkan runoff, erosi, serta menghasilkan sedimentasi pada bagian lanskap yang ada di bawahnya. Lubang-lubang galian tambang yang menganga jelas merupakan pencemaran visual bagi pemandangan lanskap. Penggundulan hutan untuk pembukaan eksplorasi tambang mengakibatkan hutan alami hilang, yang berarti biodiversitas menurun secara drastis. Jika kondisi tersebut dibiarkan setelah pasca tambang maka kerusakan lingkungan bukan hanya terjadi pada lokasi/tapak pertambangan akan tetapi akan berdampak negatif pada kawasan di sekitarnya. Industri tambang dituntut untuk mampu mengembalikan lahan bekas tambang ke kondisi yang sesuai dengan persyaratan tataguna lahan, misal dengan teknik bioremediasi. Selanjutnya hasil reklamasi lahan bekas tambang dapat direncanakan serta dikelola antara lain untuk pengembangan kawasan rekreasi untuk tujuan wisata. Pengembangan dan pengelolaannya perlu direncanakan secara terintegrasi secara ekologis, ekonomis dan kultural. Konsep umum dalam pengembangan lanskap bekas pertambangan adalah tersedianya keragaman lanskap baik bersifat terrestrial maupun akuatik. Sehingga pemanfaatan kubangan besar dijadikan lanskap danau, situ atau kolam besar sebagai badan air yang dikombinasikan dengan RTH. Pemanfaatan lanskap tersebut untuk fungsi perlindungan tanah & air, konservasi biodiversity, penyimpanan Carbon dan keindahan lanskap bagi fungsi kenyamanan & estetika lingkungan. Oleh karena itu diperlukan desain lanskap dengan basis pengelolaan yang berkelanjutan.

Kata Kunci: bio-remediasi, (eko)wisata, reklamasi, ruang terbuka hijau

Wednesday, 24 March 2010, ICRAF – Bogor

“Landscape Level of Agroforestry in University Education” 1)

Hadi Susilo Arifin 2) and Leti Sundawati 3)

1) Agroforestry as Locally Appropriate Adaptation and Mitigation Action (LAAMA): Half-day seminar to review the Agroforestry legacy of Dr. Laxman Joshi, Dr. Sonya Dewi and Dr. Jesus Fernandez in Indonesia.

2) Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB)

3) Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB)

ABSTRACT
Developing countries, included Indonesia has a great problem of poverty and several disasters such as tsunami, earth quake, flooding, typhoon, biodiversity lost, decreasing of water quality and quantities. Land use planning caused direct and indirect the general landscape of Indonesia towards segregated or integrated management of landscape. Some landscape of Indonesia should be evaluated whether such policies and some problems such as illegal logging, converted to other uses legal and illegal dramatically changed the function of forest and ecosystem. In such cases “landscape agroforestry” could be model to be used for maintenance the unbalance ecosystem. In order to respond this issue, since 2007 SEANAFE with five country members (Indonesia, Laos, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam) has been conducting research of agroforestry landscape analysis. It is agroforestry studies and researches on landscape perspective at watershed and local levels and at the dynamic of spatial and temporal scales. Based on the AFLA research results, curriculum framework was composed through AFLA in-country training. 24 universities of INAFE members participated in this training that was conducted on November 2008. Through the main streaming of AFLA, hopefully, AFLA curriculum framework could be improved by some inputs from the stakeholders. Lecture note of AFLA was established in the end of 2009. However, agroforestry itself, just a subject, which is delivered as a lecture course, whether in Faculty of Agriculture and/or in Faculty of Forestry. Especially, after DGHE issued SK No. 163/2007 regarding study program coding, some study programs or departments were merged. According to information from some INAFE universities member, that landscape level agroforestry is introduced through 0.5 – 3 meetings in the class of the lecture course of Agroforestry, Sustainable Agriculture, Rural Landscape, Watershed Management, Soil and Water Conservation, Community Forest Management, Social Forestry for Diploma, Under gradute or Graduate level. Some questions often come what the different of “Agroforestry Landscape Analysis” and “Integrated Resources Management”, “Integrated Watershed/River Basin Management”, “Land Use Planning”, “Land Capability and Suitability”, or “Land and Soil Conservation”. It is subject to be discussed to have understanding, clearly.

Keywords: ecosystem services, integrated management, landscape disaster, segregated management

“Local Wisdom and Ecovillage Oriented Agroforestry Development for Enhancing Creative Economy” 1)

Hadi Susilo ARIFIN 2) and Nurhayati HS ARIFIN 2)

1) International Seminar of the Managing of Environment: Learning from The Past, Reaching for The Future (Workshop on The International World Conference Wisdom 2010), University of Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 5-8 December 2010

2) Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB)

E-mail Address: hsarifin@ipb.ac.id and dedhsa@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
The diversity of Indonesian bio-physics and socio-cultures are potential resources for community based agriculture economic development. Triple bottom line benefits should be improved to have environmental conservation, community welfare and amenity service in order to harmonize relationships between rural and urban landscapes development. Local wisdom and local knowledge of community in agriculture system could be empowered, such as practicing of agroforestry, agrosilvopastural, or agrosilvofishery in “pekarangan” (home gardens), “kebun campuran” (mixed gardens) and “talun” (forest gardens). By promoting these practices, the opportunities of production and conservation function can be gained. Community welfare can be achieved through the planning and revitalizing of eco-village concept. Ecologically, the beautification of rural and agricultural landscape can be developed as agro-tourism objects. It is promoted to gain the creative economy for rural community. Besides doing farming system activities, householders or farmers can provide home stay service, small traditional food restaurant, souvenir shops, and guidance services for visitors and tourists. It will be additional income source for small holder farmers.

Key words: agroforestry system, agrotourism, eco village, local wisdom, triple bottom line benefit

Kaswanto, Arifin HS, Munandar A, and Iiyama K 2008. Sustainable water management in rural landscape of Cianjur Watershed, Cianjur District, West Java, Indonesia. The International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences (ISSAAS) J. Japan. Vol. 4(1): 33 – 45

SUSTAINABLE WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE RURAL LANDSCAPE OF CIANJUR WATERSHED, CIANJUR DISTRICT, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

Kaswanto 1), Hadi Susilo Arifin 1), Aris Munandar 1), Kenji Iiyama 2)

1) Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), 2) The University of Tokyo

ABSTRACT
Research on water management in rural landscape of Cianjur Watershed was conducted in the period of dry season. Five villages were selected as the study site. They located in the upper stream area (Galudra Dua Hamlet), the middle stream area (Burangkeng and Gasol Satu Hamlet), and the lower stream area (Sayang and Cibakung Hamlet). A survey method was used in order to find out water quality and quantity, and its management. Water resources from ponds, wells, rivers, paddy fields and springs were analyzed chemically and physically. Water qualities changed and were significantly different decrease along Cianjur River and accumulated in down stream area. Water utilization in rural landscape indicated optimal improvement of human activity and agricultural production through to land use changing. Land use disturbance were predicted related to water quality, and urban land use affected rural areas negatively. Examining of pond characteristics were a best estimates for entire watershed area. The result on water cycle in the pekarangan was elucidated to find out the management, its availability and the role in the village’s ecosystem.

Keywords: pekarangan, rural landscape, watershed, water management, water quality.

http://www.springer.com/978-3-540-30289-6

http://books.google.co.id/books?id=4AJosEUoFN0C&pg=PR7&lpg=PR7&dq=%22hadi+susilo+arifin%22%2B%22springer%22&source=bl&ots=nyQlMB9K6m&sig=bHkl6KK81aStr02eiml7sY-mUB8&hl=id&ei=x1U9TovUEe7imAXburX3Bw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CEoQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q&f=false

Kehlenbeck, K., H.S. Arifin, and B.L. Maass, 2007. Plant Diversity in Homegardens in a Socio-Economic and Agro-Ecological Context. In: T. Tscharntke, M. Zeller and C. Leuschner (Eds), The Stability of Tropical Rainforest Margins: Linking Ecological, Economic and Social Constraints. Springer Verlag, Gottingen, Germany. 297-320p.

STABILITY OF RAIN TROPICAL FOREST MARGINS
Part II Sustainable management of agroforestry systems

“Plant diversity in homegardens in a socio-economic and agro-ecological context”

Katja Kehlenbeck 1)*, Hadi Susilo Arifin 2), and Brigitte L. Maass 1)

1) Institute for Crop and Animal Production in the Tropics, Georg-August-University, Grisebachstr. 6, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany
2) Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agicultural University (IPB), Bogor, Indonesia

* Author for correspondence (tel. +49-511-393750, e-mail: katja_kehlenbeck@yahoo.de)

Summary
Homegardens are generally regarded as a very complex, species-rich agroforestry system managed in a sustainable manner over decades or even centuries. In many densely populated tropical regions, homegardens appear to be the last forest-like islands surrounded by increasingly extended, uniform staple crop fields. In these areas, homegardens with their multi-layered vegetation structure serve as an important habitat for wild flora and fauna. Homegardens fulfil not only important ecological, but also many social and cultural functions. However, the major purposes of homegardens are subsistence production and income generation, particularly in rural areas. At forest margins, high production levels in homegardens could help to reduce deforestation. Furthermore, homegardens should be considered as a model for sustainable agroforestry systems, integrating both economic and ecological advantages. Plant diversity is influenced by a combination of agro-ecological as well as socio-economic factors. The complex interactions of all these factors are not yet fully understood. This paper presents an overview of the existing knowledge and identifies gaps regarding the factors determining plant species diversity and composition in homegardens. We further illustrate this with two case studies from Indonesia (Central Sulawesi and West Java), in which temporal and spatial variations were investigated. In conclusion, diversity of useful plants was mainly influenced by elevation as well as commercialisation, urbanisation, and fragmentation. It was fairly dynamic over time, particularly when commercialisation was possible. To preserve the sustainability of homegardens and their suitability for in-situ conservation of plant genetic resources, any promotion to intensify production in homegardens should consider the overall ecological functioning of the system in a landscape context.

Keywords: Agro-biodiversity, Agro-ecosystem, Agroforestry, Commercialisation, Function, Homegarden, In situ conservation, Plant diversity, Plant genetic resources, Species composition, Sustainability, Urbanisation, Vegetation structure, Vegetation dynamics

HIKOBIA 15: 363-376. 2010

Impact of land use changes on landscape spatial pattern during two decades (1989-2009) in West Java region

KASWANTO, Hadi Susilo ARIFIN and Nobukazu NAKAGOSHI

Abstract

The aim of this research was to analyze the impact of land use changes on the landscape spatial pattern in West Java, Indonesia, especially in four main watersheds. Those watersheds are Ciliwung (CL), Cisadane (CS), Cimandiri (CM) and Cibuni (CB) Watershed. The main focus of this research was to combine the land use change model and landscape metrics model with a comprehensive analysis of the impact of current land utilization landscape spatial pattern. These watersheds were also compared to determine the differences between the northern and southern areas. The data was analyzed based on the Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at Small regional extent (CLUE-S) model and Land Use Change model. Land use changes were hypothesized to have an impact on landscape spatial pattern such as patches, mosaics and matrixes by altering some processes such as altitude, slope, demography and biophysical condition, drainage and distance to some central activities. The population density and distance to urban area are significant impacted to land use changing. The landscape spatial pattern, particularly remaining (RE) patches was dominated in the southern areas (SAs) which were still has a value on forest area more than 50.0 %, in average. Additionally, the differences between the northern and southern areas were analyzed using the statistical stepwise regression model. The northern areas (NAs) had and continue to have a faster acceleration of land use changes compare to the southern areas (SAs). The average P value or the annual forest rate change of NAs is higher than SAs are 3.42%/year and 0.18%/year, respectively.

Key Words: impact of land use change, landscape ecology approach, landscape spatial pattern, watershed management. 

KASWANTO and Nobukazu NAKAGOSHI
Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation Hiroshima University
1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, 739-8529 Japan

Hadi Susilo ARIFIN
Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB)
Dramaga, Bogor, 16680 Indonesia

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