Special Feature: Report

Landscape ecology and urban biodiversity in tropical Indonesian cities

Hadi Susilo Arifin and Nobukazu Nakagoshi


Indonesia has recently been faced with a number of great problems: poverty, natural disasters such as tsunami, earthquakes, flooding and typhoons, volcanic eruptions, loss of biodiversity, decreasing water quality and quantity, increased pollution, and aesthetic degradation of the landscape. These disturbances have been caused by rapid changes in land use and land cover, deforestation, the application of monoculture farming systems in commercial agriculture, urbanization, industrialization, and other types of infrastructure development. The government, urban communities and companies have promoted some programs to ameliorate the problem of environmental degradation. The government has ratified law no. 26/2007 as a commitment to sustainability; this law ensures that cities are obliged to provide green open spaces covering a minimum of 30% of urbanized areas. Many metropolitan cities have feverishly enacted policies to promote greening programs, such as those applied in Jakarta. However, a new town—Sentul City—has engaged in policies that aim to create a well-designed eco-city with urban greenery and ecological networks. This new policy is supposed to herald a better future for urban quality. It is expected that green spaces will provide environmental services: water resource management, biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration, and landscape beauty.

Keywords  Biodiversity – Carbon sequestration – Ecological network – Ecosystem services – Green space – Indigenous species